India

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King James and Jahangir 

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Robert Kyd

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William Roxburgh

 

 

 

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Scottish Surgeons

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Robert Wight

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Forest Conservation

 

IN07
William Graham McIvor

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Scottish Gardeners

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Dr Robert Bruce: Assam Tea

 

 

 

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Darjeeling

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Kashmir Weavers

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The First Shawl

 

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Vale of Leven: Turkey Red

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Jute: Bangladesh & Dundee

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Mills around the World

 

 

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Kolkata Scottish Cemetery

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Alexander Duff

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Geddes and Tagore

 

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Scots in Kalimpong

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Honorable Mary Scott
 

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Alastair Robin McGlashan

     

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Indian Wedding: Bride

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Traditions and Celebrations

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Baron Singh

Gaelic

One of the results of the Act of Union (1707) was the ability of Scots to engage in the opportunities provided by organisations like the East India Company. Perhaps due to the educational tradition in Scotland, perhaps because of a common zeal for grasping such opportunities, Scottish names soon began to dominate the Company. This meant Scots became increasingly involved in trade, including tea and indigo, along with military and political developments in India throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.


The influential Scotsman Henry Dundas (1742-1811), often nicknamed “the uncrowned King of Scotland”, helped to bring the activities of the East India Company closer under the control of the British government. Whilst President of the Board of Control, he also oversaw a period of increasing Scottish influence in India. By 1792 it is estimated that 1 out of 9 civil servants in the Company were Scots, along with a third of all officers in its army in India and 1 in 11 of its soldiers.

As well as taking part in the administration and governance of India, Scots were also heavily involved in trade there. Coal, timber, sugar, indigo, and cotton all had large markets back in Britain, and by the 1880s India was also the leading centre for tea as well, surpassing even China. When it became possible to mechanically spin jute fibres from the 1830s, a huge trade in its raw materials boomed. From India, much of the jute made its way to the mills of Dundee in Scotland where the jute trade dominated throughout the second half of the nineteenth century. Scots were also involved in the establishment of the railways in India.

Education is an important part of the Diaspora legacy, and India was no exception. There are a number of “Scottish schools” still operating. Some, like the Bombay Scottish School (est 1847) were originally set up to provide an appropriate Presbyterian education for the children of Scottish servicemen. Others, like the Scottish Church College in Kolkata, were established to make English-language education available to Indians. The Scottish Church College was established by the Perthshire missionary Alexander Duff (1806-78) picture here, who also played a role in establishing the University of Calcutta in 1857 and India’s first medical school. Such establishments also led the way in providing education for woman, and as well as importing teachers from Scotland they also employed Indian scholars.

 Such were the numbers of Scottish-linked families in India that they formed the recruitment field for a regiment in the British Indian Army, the Calcutta Scottish. Their badge featured the Saltire as well as the arms of the city, and they wore Hunting Stewart tartan. The prevalence of Scots can be seen in the Scottish Cemetery in Kolkata, where over ninety per cent of graves are marked with Scottish names. Although the cemetery fell into disrepair after Indian independence in the mid-twentieth century, a trust has recently been working hard on its restoration. Amongst the towns listed in the cemetery as birthplaces are Campbelltown, Paisley, and Dundee.




 Na h-Ìnnseachan

 B’ e aon de thoraidhean Achd an Aonaidh (1707) an comas a bha aig Albannaich a dhol an sàs anns na cothroman a bha a’ nochdadh bho bhuidhnean leithid Companaidh Taobh an Ear nan Ìnnseachan. ’S dòcha air sgàth traidisean foghlaim ann an Alba, ’s dòcha air sgàth dealas cumanta airson gabhail ri cothroman mar sin, cha robh e fada gus an do thòisich ainmean Albannach a’ toirt buaidh anns a’ Chompanaidh. Bha seo a’ ciallachadh gun robh Albannaich a’ sìor dhol an sàs ann am malairt, a’ gabhail a-steach teatha agus guirmean, còmhla ri leasachaidhean armailteach is poilitigeach anns na h-Ìnnseachan tron ochdamh ’s an naoidheamh linn deug 

 Chuidich an t-Albannach buadhach Eanraig Dundas (1742-1811), a bha glè thric air iomradh mar Rìgh na h-Alba gun chrùn”, ri gnìomhachdan Companaidh nan Ìnnseachan an Ear a thoirt nas dlùithe fo smachd Riaghaltas Bhreatainn. Fhad ’s a bha e na Cheann-suidhe air a’ Bhòrd Smachd, bha e a’ riaghladh thairis air àm far an robh buaidh Albannach a’ sìor fhàs anns na h-Ìnnseachan. Ann an 1792, tha tuairmse ann gum b’ e Albannaich a bh’ ann an 1 a-mach à 9 de na seirbheisichean catharra sa Chompanaidh, còmhla ri trian de na h-oifigearan uile san arm anns na h-Ìnnseachan agus 1 ann an 11 de na saighdearan.

 A thuilleadh air a bhith a’ gabhail pàirt ann an rianachd is riaghladh nan Ìnnseachan, bha Albannaich gu mòr an sàs cuideachd ann am malairt an sin. Bha margaidean mòra ann am Breatainn airson gual, fiodh, siùcar, guirmean agus cotan, agus anns na 1880an bha na h-Ìnnseachan mar a phrìomh àite airson teatha cuideachd, fiù os cionn Shìonaidh. Nuair a thàinig comas air snàithleanan ròpa ruadh a shnìomh bho na 1830an, dh’fhosgail malairt mhòr a-mach anns na stuthan amh air a shon. Rinn a’ mhòr-chuid den ròpa ruadh a shlighe às na h-Ìnnseachan gu na muilnean ann an Dùn Deagh ann an Alba far an robh làmh-an-uachdar aig gnìomhachas an ròpa ruaidh tron dàrna leth den naoidheamh linn deug. Bha Albannaich cuideachd an sàs ann an stèidheachadh nan rathaidean-iarainn anns na h-Ìnnseachan. 

Tha foghlam na phàirt chudromach de dhìleab an Diaspara, agus bha na h-Ìnnseachan mar an ceudna. Tha àireamh de “sgoiltean Albannach” fhathast ag obair. Bha cuid dhiubh, leithid Sgoil Albannach Bombay (stèidhichte 1847) air an stèidheachadh bho thùs gus foghlam iomchaidh Clèireach a sholarachadh do chlann luchd-seirbheis Albannach. Bha feadhainn eile, mar Cholaiste na h-Eaglaise Albannaich ann an Kolkata, air an stèidheachadh gus foghlam tro mheadhan na Beurla a thoirt seachad do na h-Ìnnseanaich. Chaidh Colaiste na h-Eaglaise Albannaich a stèidheachadh leis a’ mhiseanaraidh à Peairt, Alasdair Duff (1806-78) san dealbh an seo, aig an robh pàirt cuideachd ann an stèidheachadh Oilthigh Calcutta ann an 1857 agus a’ chiad sgoil mheidigeach anns na h-Ìnnseachan. Bha a leithid sin de dh’aitreabhan a’ stiùireadh na slighe cuideachd ann a bhith a’ solarachadh foghlaim do bhoireannaich, agus a thuilleadh air tarraing air luchd-teagaisg à Alba bha iad cuideachd a’ fastadh sgoilearan Ìnnseanach.

Bha a leithid de theaghlaichean co-cheangailte ri Alba anns na h-Ìnnseachan ’s gun do chruthaich iad àite trusaidh airson rèiseamaid anns an Arm Ìnnseanach Bhreatannach, an Calcutta Scottish. Bha am bràiste aca a’ nochdadh Bratach na Croise a thuilleadh air gearradh airm a’ bhaile mhòir seo agus bha iad a’ caitheamh tartan nan Stiùbhartach Seilge. Chithear bitheantas nan Albannach anns a’ Chladh Albannach ann an Kolkata, far a bheil còrr agus naochad sa cheud de dh’uaighean air an comharrachadh le ainmean Albannach. Ged a chaidh an cladh bhuaidhe às dèidh neo-eisimeileachd nan Ìnnseachan ann am meadhan na ficheadamh linn, tha urras air a bhith ag obair cruaidh o chionn ghoirid air a dhèanamh suas às ùr. Am measg nam bailtean air an liostadh sa chladh tha Ceanna Loch Chille Chiarain, Pàislig agus Dùn Deagh.