Portugal

 Gaelic

PT01
John Drummond 

PT02
George Sandeman

PT03
The Port Trade



Thoughts of Scotland's links to Portugal inevitably turn first to the port and wine industry, and rightly so. Port was widely viewed as an English drink (the Scottish market preferred claret), but it was Scottish families that drove the industry in the nineteenth century.The names of Graham, Cockburn, Dow, Gould Campbell, Symington, Sandeman (pioneers of logos and branding), all evoke the long Scottish involvement. The vast Graham's Port Lodge built in 1890 (above) gives an idea of the scale of these businesses. Robert Cockburn's port house was set up in 1815 after he gained a taste for Portugal and its wines whilst campaigning there with the Duke of Wellington. Many of his fellow Scottish soldiers would have enjoyed the local wines during the British Army's successful war in Portugal against the forces of Napoleonic France.

Scottish names are also important in Portugal's military history before the arrival of the expeditionary forces of the early 1800s. Many Scots soldiers sought advancement there in the eighteenth century. After serving Prussia, Captain Forbes of Skellatur joined the Portuguese army and rose to the rank of general after introducing many of the innovations he had learned from Frederick the Great. When the French invaded Forbes accompanied the Portuguese royal family into exile in Brazil, dying there in 1808. He was not a unique case: William Sharpe of St Andrews became a brigadier-general in 1764; James Anderson and John McDonnell both commanded Portuguese regiments; Lt-General Maclean was governor of Lisbon in 1763 and later even gained the great distinction of being governor of Estramadura.

The Portuguese island of Madeira has particularly strong Scottish links. These date back to the very first expedition to colonise the island in 1424, which included in its number John Drummond of Stobhall. He became known as "John the Scotsman", João Escocio, and the surnames Drummont and Escorcio are his legacy. In the 1690s the island traded with Scots colonists involved in the Darien expeditions, and later Jacobite exiles would come the island and become involved in the Madeira wine trade. The Scots also had a hand in the tourism industry as it began to develop in the Victorian period: William Reid's beautiful hotel, Reid's Palace (left), has since gained considerable status, being visited by famous names from crowned heads to Hollywood stars.


Portagail

Tha smuaintean mu na ceanglaichean eadar Alba is Portagail a’ tionndadh sa chiad àite gu gnìomhachas an fhìona agus a’ phoirt, agus tha sin ceart. Bhathar a’ coimhead air port mar dheoch Sasannach (b’ fheàrr  le margaid na h-Alba claret), ach b’ e teaghlaichean Albannach a bha a’ stiùireadh a’ ghnìomhachais san naoidheamh linn deug. Tha na h-ainmean Greum, Cockburn, Dow, Gould, Caimbeul, Symington, Sandeman (tùsairean nan suaicheantais agus nam brannd) uile a’ toirt gu cuimhne an ùine fhada a bha Albannaich na lùib. Tha Loidse mhòr Poirt a’ Ghreumaich a thogadh ann an 1890 (gu h-àrd) a’ toirt dhuinn beachd air meud nan gnothachasan sin. Chaidh taigh poirt Raibeart Cockburn a chur suas ann an 1815 an dèidh dha blas fhaighinn air Portagail agus a chuid fìona fhad ’s a bha e ag iomairt an sin le Diùc Wellington. Bhiodh mòran de a cho-shaighdearan Albannach air tlachd a ghabhail às an fhìon ionadail aig àm cogadh shoirbheachail an Airm Bhreatannaich ann am Portagail an aghaidh feachdan na Frainge aig àm Napoleon.

Tha ainmean Albannach cudromach cuideachd ann an eachdraidh armailteach Phortagail mus do ràinig na feachdan bho thall-thairis tràth sna 1800an. Bha mòran saighdearan Albannach a’ sireadh adhartais an sin san ochdamh linn deug. An dèidh frithealadh ann am Pruisia, chaidh an Caiptean Foirbeis à Skellatur an lùib arm Phortagail agus dh’èirich e gu rang seanalair an dèidh dha mòran de na nuadhasan a thoirt a-steach a dh’ionnsaich e bho Frederick Cumhachdach. Nuair a chaidh na Frangaich air ionnsaigh, chaidh Foirbeis còmhla ri teaghlach rìoghail Phortagail air fògradh ann am Braisil agus bhàsaich e an sin ann an 1808. Cha robh e leis fhèin: dh’èirich Uilleam Sharpe à Cill Rìmhinn gu briogaidier-seanalair ann an 1764; bha Seumas MacAnndrais agus Iain MacDhòmhnaill le chèile os cionn rèiseamaidean Portagach; bha Leifteanant-Seanalair MacIllEathain na riaghlaiche air Lisbon ann an 1763 agus às dèidh sin choisinn e urram mòr ann a bhith na riaghlaiche air
Estramadura.

Th
a ceanglaichean gu h-àraid làidir eadar eilean Phortagach Madeira agus Alba. Tha na ceanglaichean sin a’ dol air ais chun a’ chiad turas thall-thairis gus an t-eilean a choloineadh ann an 1424, agus am measg na h-àireimh bha Iain Druimeanach à Stobhall. Bha e aithnichte mar  "Iain an t-Albannach", João Escocio, agus tha na sloinnidhean Druimeanach is Escorcio mar an dìleab a dh’fhàg e às a dhèidh. Anns na 1690an, bha an t-eilean a’ malairt de coloinich Albannach a bha air a bhith an sàs ann an tursan Darien agus às dèidh sin thàinig fògarraich Seumasach don eilean a chaidh an sàs ann am malairt an fhìona. Thàinig amannan cruaidh air a’ ghnìomhachas phrothaideach a bha seo nuair a thòisich phylloxera a’ marbhadh nan crainn-fhìona anns na 1890anmar sin thòisich an nighean aig aon de na fir-gnothachais Albannach a’ teagasg obair-grèise à Siorrachd Àir mar dhòigh eile air teachd-a-steach do na h-eileanaich a dhèanamh. Tha Madeira cliùiteach a-nis airson obair-grèise le taing don Bh-uas Phelps. Bha na h-Albannaich cuideachd an sàs ann an gnìomhachas na turasachd nuair a thòisich e a’ fàs aig àm Bhioctòiria: tha taigh-òsta àlainn Uilleam Reid, Lùchairt  Reid (clì), air inbhe nach beag a chosnadh on uair sin agus e air a thadhal le ainmean cliùiteach, bho cheannardan stàite gu rionnagan Hollywood.