Sweden

 
Gaelic

SE01
Warriors 

SE02
Birth of Gothenburg

SE03
William Chalmers

 

 

SE04
Colin Campbell

SE05
Royal Bachelors Club

SE06
William Gibson: Jonsered

 

 

 

SE07
Alexander Keiller

SE08
Association Football

SE09
Cockenzie Boat Disaster

 

 

 

SE10
Gothenburgs in Scotland

 

Swedish mythology tells of remote days when a host of Scots, Skottarna, plundered their lands until they were finally defeated at Janum Church. Peaceful relations did not arrive until the fearsome Earl of Orkney and other Scottish pirates had been defeated. Thereafter Scottish emigration to Sweden was mainly attributable to Sweden’s ambitious military requirements rather than to the trading habits of the Scots.  However, the outstanding military role played until the start of the 19th century provided a politically favourable environment for myriad Scottish contributions. From the early 16th century complaints about Scots hawking of their wares all over country, against Royal privileges, arose - although old Scots who had paid their taxes for a long time were tolerated provided they themselves did not employ additional Scots!  Reports that Scots journeymen were all too often ousting native competition and seeking citizenship were heard in Ystad, Malmo and Stockholm. But it was in Goteborg that the greatest concentration of Scots migrants was eventually to assemble, both because of its immediate proximity and also thanks to a deliberate invitation from King Gustavus at the beginning of the 17th century. In Goteborg the Scots built a reputation not only for trade and commerce but also for philanthropy and social amelioration.

Scottish military contributions to Sweden began in the reign of King Eric XIV in 1563 with Scots sailors also being recruited as early as 1565 to aid Sweden, albeit unsuccessfully, in the Northern Seven Years War against Denmark and Poland. The creator of Sweden’s Empire during the subsequent Thirty Years War, King Gustav II Adolphus, held his Scottish officers such as Field Marshal Alexander Leslie - who later commanded the Scottish Covenanter army during the Civil War back at home - in the greatest esteem, granting them patents of the nobility. The Marquess of Hamilton was the rare exception, as the 6,000 men he took to fight for Sweden were virtually all lost to disease and starvation in 1634. The woodcut to the left shows just four of the estimated tens of thousands of Scots soldiers who served Adolphus in the 1630s, motivated both by martial spirit and religious zeal. Sir James Spens of Wormiston served both King Charles IX and subsequently King Gustav II with distinction, as did diplomat Alexander Erskine and later in the century the ‘honest and just lawyer’ Walter Greig.

There were many other significant Scots who settled in Sweded, such as Jacobus Robertson of Straun who became the Royal Physician but then exploited his patronage to the dismay of the citizens of Stockholm, whilst his son Adolf went on to murder his own wife! More beneficial to Sweden were the careers of the Colquhouns/Gahns whose scientific research and enterprise helped to develop copper-mining and smelting industries in Falun. Later generations of the family produced vitriol and sulphur from the waters of the mines and new instrumentation. They were also to introduce vaccination to Sweden. Many more Scottish men of medicine were to play their role as well. Patrick Leyel came to Sweden with his two brothers and his family made major contributions to iron and silver mining at Hammarby and Reliefers. Thomas Cunningham’s father had emigrated from Creil to Stockholm and young Thomas was hailed a scientific genius for his work on powder milling and guns in the mid 18th century.

An t-Suain

Tha miotas-eòlas na Suaine ag innse mu dheidhinn làithean a dh’fhalbh nuair a bha sluagh na h-Alba, na Skottarna, a’ creachadh na dùthcha aca gus an deach buaidh a thoirt orra mu dheireadh aig Eaglais Janum. Cha tàinig fois eatarra gus na ghèill Iarla borb Arcaibh agus spùinneadairean Albannach eile. Às dèidh sin, bha às-imrich à Alba don t-Suain an urra sa chiad àite ri feumalachdan armailteach ghlòir-mhiannach na Suaine seach ri cleachdaidhean malairt nan Albannach. Ach, chruthaich an t-àite barraichte armailteach sin a mhair gu toiseach na 19mh linn, àrainneachd fhreagarrach airson mòran tabhartasan bho na h-Albannaich. Bho thràth san 16mh linn, dh’èirich gearanan mu Albannaich a’ reic an cuid bathair air feadh na dùthcha an aghaidh sochairean Rìoghail – ged a bhathar a’ cur suas le seann Albannaich a bha air an cìsean a phàigheadh thar ùine mhòr, cho fada agus nach fhastaidheadh iad Albannaich eile! Bhathar a’ cluinntinn aithrisean ann an Ystad, Malmo agus Stockholm, gun robh luchd-ceàird Albannach glè thric a’ cur às do fharpais dùthchasach agus a’ sireadh saoranachd. Ach b’ ann ann an Göteborg a thuinich a’ mhòr-chuid de dh’Albannaich aig deireadh cùise, air sgàth cho dlùth ’s a bha e agus cuideachd  le taing do chuireadh a dh’aon ghnothaich bhon Rìgh Gustavus aig toiseach na 17mh linn. Ann an Göteborg, choisinn na h-Albannaich cliù dhaibh fhèin, cha b’ ann a-mhàin airson malairt ach cuideachd airson deagh euchdachd agus feàrrad sòisealta. Thòisich cuideachadh armailteach don t-Suain aig àm Rìgh Eric XIV ann an 1563, le seòladairean Albannach gam fastadh cho tràth ri 1565 gu Cogadh nan Seachd Bliadhna an aghaidh na Danmhairg agus na Pòlainn. Bha spèis mhòr aig an Rìgh Gustav II Adolphus, a chruthaich Ìmpireachd na Suaine aig àm Cogadh nan Trithead Bliadhna, do na h-oifigearan Albannach aige, a’ toirt dhaibh còraichean uaisleachd mar a thug e don Mharasgal Alasdair Leslie a bha às dèidh sin a’ stiùireadh feachd nan Cùmhnantach aig àm a’ Chogaidh Shìobhalta air ais aig an taigh. Ach cha robh e mar sin don Mharcas Hamaltan agus na 6,000 saighdear a thug e leis a chogadh don t-Suain, a bha air an call gu galar agus goirt ann an 1634. Tha an gearradh fiodha gu clì a’ taisbeanadh dìreach a ceithir de na mìltean de shaighdearan Albannach a bha ann an seirbheis Adolphus sna 1630an, air am brosnachadh le spiorad gaisgeanta agus dealas creideamhach. Fhritheil Sir Seumas Spens à Wormiston Rìgh Teàrlach IX agus an uair sin Rìgh Gustav II le cliù, mar a rinn an seòltaire Alasdair Erskine agus nas fhaide air adhart ‘am fear-lagha onarach agus còir’, Bhaltair Greig. Bha mòran Albannach sònraichte eile ann a thuinich san t-Suain, leithid Iàcob MacRaibeart à Straun a bha na Lighiche Rìoghail, ach an uair sin a ghabh brath air a shuidheachadh gu mòr-thàmailt muinntir Stockholm, le a mhac Adolf a’ murt a bhean fhèin! Nas tairbhiche don t-Suain, bha dreuchdan nan Combaich/Gahn, agus an rannsachadh saidheansail ’s an iomairt aca a’ cuideachadh le leasachadh air mèinneadh copair agus gnìomhachasan leaghaidh ann am Falun. Bha ginealaichean an teaghlaich às dèidh sin a’ dèanamh searbhag loisgeach agus pronnasg bho uisgeachan nam mèinnean. Thug iad cuideachd a’ bhanachdach a-steach don t-Suain. Bha fir Albannach ainmeil eile ann cuideachd. Thàinig Pàdraig Leyden don t-Suain le a dhithis bhràithrean, agus chuir a theaghlach-san gu mòr ri mèinneadh iarainn is airgid. Bha athair Thòmais Choineagain air imrich à Creil gu Stockholm agus choisinn Tòmas òg sàr-chliù dha fhèin airson a chuid obrach ann am bleith pùdar agus ann an gunnachan ann am meadhan na 18mh linn.