Netherlands

 Gaelic

     

NL01
Princess Mary

NL02
Special Privileges

NL03
The Scots' House

   

NL04
The Conservator

NL05
The Kirk

NL06
Lions from the Sea

NL07
Trading with Veere

NL08
Rotterdam Schotse Kerk 1643

NL09
Rotterdam Schotse Kerk 1695
 

 

NL10
Rev Robert Walker

NL11
Rotterdam Scots Church 1952

NL12
University of Leiden

The Netherlands was a pivotal trade hub during the middle ages, and a profitable maritime commerce between Scotland and the Low Countries. In particular Scottish traders brought wool, hides, and coal. Such traffic not only generates money, but also an exchange of peoples. Dutch communities developed in Scotland (particularly on the east coast which faced onto the trade routes) whilst Scottish communities developed in the Netherlands. Veere, which gained the Scottish wool staple, became the most prominent of the latter, but there was also a considerable Scots presence in other places such as Rotterdam.

Trade and commerce created a stable environment for the development of academic links, and there was a tradition of Scots students attending Dutch instituitions. Many Scots attended the university at Leiden, a centre of Law and Medicine, and Scots could even be found teaching there in the seventeenth century. Between 1572 and 1800, 1,460 Scottish students are known to have attended Leiden – a considerable number in the days before accessible travel. Post-reformation Scots had a particular empathy with the Calvinists of the Dutch Republic, and a Scots International Church was established in Rotterdam in 1643 and remains open today.

Trade and education were not the only factors which drew Scots to the Netherlands. As in many parts of the Diaspora, war played its part as well. For example, large numbers of Scots fought in the wars which saw the Netherlands gain independence from Spain, and after the wars three regiments stayed on as the Scots Brigade. They continued to serve in the Netherlands, wearing British-style uniforms and recruiting in Scotland, until war broke out between Britain and the Dutch Republic over the latter’s support for American Revolutionaries. When ordered to incorporate fully into the Dutch Army, the Brigade instead returned to Scotland as the 94th Regiment.

 

An Òlaind

Bha an Òlaind aig teis-meadhain malairt tro na meadhan-aoisean agus thòisich malairt mara phrothaideach eadar Alba agus na Tìrean Ìosal. Bhiodh luchd-malairt à Alba a’ tarraing clòimh, seichean agus gual gu h-àraid. Tha a leithid sin de thrafaig a’ gineadh, chan e a-mhàin airgead ach cuideachd iomlaid sluaigh. Tha coimhearsnachdan Duitseach air leasachadh ann an Alba (gu h-àraid air a’ chosta an ear a bha mu choinneamh nan slighean malairt) agus bha coimhearsnachdan Albannach a’ fàs anns an Òlaind. Thàinig Veere, a choisinn malairt na clòimhe, gu bhith mar an t-àite a b’ ainmeile ach bha tuineachaidhean Albannach ann an àiteachan eile cuideachd leithid Rotterdam.  

Chruthaich malairt àrainneachd sheasmhach airson leasachadh air ceanglaichean sgoilearach agus bha traidisean ann de dh’oileanaich à Alba a’ frithealadh aitreabhan Duitseach. Bha mòran Albannaich a’ frithealadh an oilthigh ann an Leiden, ionad Lagha agus Eòlas-leighis agus lorgaist Albannaich fiù ’s a’ teagasg an sin anns an t-seachdamh linn deug. Eadar 1572 agus 1800, tha dearbhadh ann gun do fhritheil 1,460 oileanach Albannach an oilthigh ann an Leiden – àireamh mhòr anns na làithean mus robh cothrom furasta ann air siubhal. Às dèidh an ath-leasachaidh, bha co-fhaireachdainn àraid aig Albannaich ris na Calbhanaich anns a’ Phoblachd Dhuitsich, agus chaidh Eaglais Eadar-nàiseanta na h-Alba a stèidheachadh ann an Rotterdam ann an 1643, a tha fosgailte gus an latha an-diugh.

Cha b’ e malairt agus foghlam na h-aon fheartan a bha a’ tarraing Albannaich don Òlaind. Mar a bha ann an iomadh sgìre den Diaspara, bha pàirt mhòr aig cogadh cuideachd. Mar eisimpleir, bha àireamhan mòra de dh’Albannaich a’ sabaid anns na cogaidhean a chunnaic an Òlaind a’ faighinn neo-eisimeileachd bhon Spàinn, agus às dèidh nan cogaidhean dh’fhuirich trì rèiseamaidean far an robh iad mar am Bragàd Albannach. Lean iad air adhart a’ frithealadh san Òlaind, a’ caitheamh dheiseachan-èididh ann an stoidhle Bhreatainn agus a’ trusadh ann an Alba gus an do bhris cogadh a-mach eadar Breatainn agus a’ Phoblachd Dhuitseach mar thoradh air taic na Poblachd do na Reabhlaidich Aimeireaganach. Nuair a chaidh an òrdachadh a-steach gu h-iomlan don Arm Dhuitseach, ’s ann a thill am Bragàd a dh’Alba mar an 94mh Rèiseamaid.